Earthwork & Grading
Earthwork consists of roadway excavations (cuts) and roadway embankments (fills) for highways and associated items of work. Earthwork includes all types of materials excavated and placed in embankment, including soil, granular material, rock, shale, and other materials. Other scopes of earthwork include removal of structures and obstructions, channel excavation, preparation of foundations for embankment, disposal of excavated material, borrow, preparation of subgrade, subbase, and temporary water pollution, and soil erosion. If pavement is to remain smooth and stable during years of service under traffic, the earthwork on which it is built must be stable and provide adequate support. Where roughness, settlements and other distress develop in pavement during service under traffic, the cause often is a deficiency in the stability of earthwork which supports the pavement.